I am looking forward to participating on a panel at OMMA Global Hollywood: making use of social data moderated by Martin Green from Meebo including myself, Dan Beltramo from Vizu and Jim Calhoun from Popular Media.
One way to think break down the data categories is: who you are, what you do, stuff you follow and stuff you create. Ultimately, I think that the goals vary based upon each campaign, but in general social data can be used to enhance powerful conversational marketing programs that drive awareness, relevance, enthusiastic participation (like blog posts, retweets, comments, etc) and an increase in organic search results.
Lots to think about. Hope to see you there!